10 Selenium Python Best Practices for Web Testing

Regression Testing Selenium Python Best Practices for Web Testing

Ever thought what are the Best Practices for Web Testing in Selenium Python? Don’t worry. We got you back!

Selenium and Python are popular combinations for web testing automation. Its versatility and ease of use make it an excellent choice for web developers and quality assurance professionals. However, in order to maximize the effectiveness of Selenium Python for web test automation, best practices must be followed. This blog will go over the top ten best practices for using Selenium with Python in web testing. You can ensure that your web testing efforts are reliable, maintainable, and scalable by following the practices listed. They can also assist you in efficiently and effectively identifying and resolving issues with your web pages.

  1. Use Explicit Waits

Waiting is an important aspect of web testing, and it is critical that the test scripts wait long enough for web pages to load or page elements to become visible. The wait time can vary depending on the complexity of the web page and the internet speed, making it difficult to predict the appropriate amount of time to wait.

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Fortunately, Selenium provides an option to wait explicitly, which allows the test scripts to wait for specific conditions to be met before proceeding to the next step. Using explicit waits can help ensure that the scripts wait for the exact time required, which can help avoid unnecessary delays or failures.

Here is an example of using explicit waits in Selenium with Python:

from selenium.webdriver.support.ui import WebDriverWait
from selenium.webdriver.support import expected_conditions as EC
from selenium.webdriver.common.by import By

# Wait for an element to be visible
wait = WebDriverWait(driver, 10)
element = wait.until(EC.visibility_of_element_located((By.ID, 'my_element')))

In the code snippet above, the WebDriverWait class is used to create a new wait object with a timeout of 10 seconds. The EC.visibility_of_element_located method is used to specify the condition to wait for, which in this case, is the element with the ID ‘my_element’ becoming visible. Once the condition is met, the wait.until()  method returns the element, and the test script can proceed to the next step.

  1. Use Page Object Model

The Page Object Model (POM) is a design pattern that helps in the creation of more readable, reusable, and sustainable test scripts. POM separates web page objects from test scripts, making it easier to update the test scripts when web page changes occur.

POM represents web pages as objects with properties and methods, and test scripts interact with these objects to perform the necessary actions. POM also aids in reducing code duplication and increasing the efficiency of test scripts.

Here is an example of using POM in Selenium with Python:

# Page Object for the Google Search Page
class GoogleSearchPage:
    def __init__(self, driver):
        self.driver = driver
        self.search_box = driver.find_element(By.NAME, 'q')
        self.search_button = driver.find_element(By.NAME, 'btnK')

    def search(self, query):
        self.search_box.send_keys(query)
        self.search_button.click()

In the code snippet above. The GoogleSearchPage class represents the Google search page as an object. The __init__() method is used to initialize the object and find the search box and search button elements using the find_element() method.

The search() method is then used to perform a search on the page by sending the query to the search box and clicking the search button.

  1. Use Test Data Management

TDM (test data management) is an important aspect of web testing that entails managing the data used in test scripts. This includes managing the input data used to test the web pages as well as the expected output data returned by the test scripts.

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Using test data management can help ensure that the test scripts are using the correct data, which can help improve the accuracy and reliability of the tests. Test data management also helps to keep the test scripts organized and easier to maintain.

Here is an example of using test data management in Selenium with Python:

# Test data for the Google Search Test
search_query = 'Selenium Python Best Practices'

# Perform the search
search_page = GoogleSearchPage(driver)
search_page.search(search_query)

# Verify the results
results_page = SearchResultsPage(driver)
assert results_page.get_results_count() > 0

In the code snippet above, the search_query variable is used to store the input data used to test the Google search page. The search() method is then called on the search_page object to perform the search using the search_query data.

The get_results_count() method is then called on the results_page object to get the number of search results returned, and this value is then verified to be greater than zero using an assert statement.

  1. Use Test Reporting

Test reporting is an essential aspect of web testing, and it involves generating reports that provide an overview of the test results. Test reports can help identify the areas of the web pages that need improvement and can help track the progress of the web testing efforts.

Using test reporting can also help communicate the test results to stakeholders, including developers, managers, and clients. It can help build trust and confidence in the web testing process and can help ensure that any issues are addressed promptly.

Here is an example of using test reporting in Selenium with Python:

import unittest
import HtmlTestRunner

# Define the Test Case
class TestGoogleSearch(unittest.TestCase):
    def test_search(self):
        # Test data
        search_query = 'Selenium Python Best Practices'

        # Perform the search
        search_page = GoogleSearchPage(driver)
        search_page.search(search_query)

        # Verify the results
        results_page = SearchResultsPage(driver)
        assert results_page.get_results_count() > 0

if __name__ == '__main__':
    unittest.main(testRunner=HtmlTestRunner.HTMLTestRunner(output='reports'))

In the code snippet above, the unittest module is used to define a test case that tests the Google search page. The test_search() method is used to define the test steps, including the test data, search, and result verification.

The HtmlTestRunner module is then used to generate an HTML test report, which is saved in the ‘reports’ directory.

  1. Use Headless Browser Testing

Headless browser testing is a technique used to perform web testing without a graphical user interface (GUI). This can help improve the speed and efficiency of the tests, as well as reduce the resources required for the tests to run.

Using a headless browser can also help identify issues that may not be visible in a GUI-based test, such as layout and rendering issues. Selenium with Python provides support for headless browser testing through the HeadlessChrome and HeadlessFirefox classes.

Here is an example of using a headless browser in Selenium with Python:

from selenium.webdriver.chrome.options import Options

# Create a headless Chrome browser instance
chrome_options = Options()
chrome_options.add_argument('--headless')
driver = webdriver.Chrome(options=chrome_options)

# Perform the test steps
# ...

In the code snippet above, the chrome_options object is used to configure the Chrome browser to run in headless mode using the add_argument() method with the –headless argument. The webdriver.Chrome() method is then used to create a new Chrome browser instance with the headless options.

  1. Use Element Locators Efficiently

Element locators are used to identify web page elements, such as buttons, text boxes, and links, with which the test scripts must interact. The use of efficient element locators can help improve test performance and reliability while also lowering the risk of false positives and false negatives.

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Selenium with Python provides several element locators, including By.ID, By.NAME, By.CLASS_NAME, By.CSS_SELECTOR, and By.XPATH. Choosing the most appropriate element locator for each scenario can help ensure that the test scripts interact with the correct elements.

Here is an example of using efficient element locators in Selenium with Python:

# Find the search box using the ID element locator
search_box = driver.find_element(By.ID, 'search-box')

# Find the submit button using the CSS Selector element locator
submit_button = driver.find_element(By.CSS_SELECTOR, 'button[type="submit"]')

In the code snippet above, the find_element() method is used to find the search box and submit button elements using the By.ID and By.CSS_SELECTOR element locators, respectively.

  1. Use Test Suites

Test suites are used to group related test cases together and run them as a single unit. This can help improve the organization and maintainability of the tests, as well as reduce the time required to run the tests.

Selenium with Python provides support for test suites through the unittest.TestSuite() class. Test suites can be used to run all the tests in a single file, all the tests in a directory, or a subset of tests based on a specific criterion.

Here is an example of using test suites in Selenium with Python:

import unittest

# Define the Test Cases
class TestGoogleSearch(unittest.TestCase):
    def test_search_python(self):
        # Test data
        search_query = 'Selenium Python Best Practices'

        # Perform the search
        search_page = GoogleSearchPage(driver)
        search_page.search(search_query)

        # Verify the results
        results_page = SearchResultsPage(driver)
        assert results_page.get_results_count() > 0

class TestGoogleImages(unittest.TestCase):
    def test_search_images(self):
        # Test data
        search_query = 'Cute Kittens'

        # Perform the search
        images_page = GoogleImagesPage(driver)
        images_page.search(search_query)

        # Verify the results
        results_page = ImageResultsPage(driver)
        assert results_page.get_results_count() >0
Create a Test Suite
        test_suite = unittest.TestSuite()
test_suite.addTest(TestGoogleSearch('test_search_python'))
test_suite.addTest(TestGoogleImages('test_search_images'))

Run the Test Suite
unittest.TextTestRunner().run(test_suite)

In the code snippet above, two test cases are defined using the `unittest.TestCase` class. The `test_suite` object is then used to create a test suite and add the two test cases to the suite using the `addTest()` method.

The `unittest.TextTestRunner()` class is then used to run the test suite and generate a text-based report.

8. Use Exception Handling

Exception handling is a programming technique used to handle errors and exceptions that may occur during the test scripts’ execution. Using exception handling can help improve the reliability and robustness of the tests, as well as prevent the test scripts from crashing or stopping prematurely.

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Selenium with Python provides support for exception handling through the `try` and `except` statements. Exception handling can be used to catch and handle specific exceptions, such as `NoSuchElementException` or `TimeoutException`, or to handle any exceptions that may occur during the test scripts’ execution.

Here is an example of using exception handling in Selenium with Python:

from selenium.common.exceptions import TimeoutException

# Wait for an element to be visible
try:
    wait = WebDriverWait(driver, 10)
    element = wait.until(EC.visibility_of_element_located((By.ID, 'my_element')))
except TimeoutException:
    print('Element not found within 10 seconds')

In the code snippet above, the try statement is used to attempt to find the element with the ID ‘my_element’ using the explicit wait method. If the element is not found within 10 seconds, a TimeoutException is raised, and the except statement is used to handle the exception and print an error message.

9. Use Parallel Testing

Parallel-testing is a technique used to run multiple test scripts simultaneously on different machines or threads. This can help reduce the time required to run the tests, as well as improve the efficiency and scalability of the test suite.

Selenium with Python provides support for parallel testing through multiprocessing and concurrent futures modules. Parallel testing can be used to run multiple test scripts in parallel, run the same test script on different web browsers or operating systems, or run load and performance tests.

Here is an example of using parallel testing in Selenium with Python:

import concurrent.futures

# Define a list of test scripts to run
test_scripts = ['test_search_python.py', 'test_search_images.py', 'test_login.py', ...]

# Create a thread pool and run the test scripts in parallel
with concurrent.futures.ThreadPoolExecutor() as executor:
    results = [executor.submit(run_test_script, script) for script in test_scripts]

# Get the results of the test scripts
for result in results:
    print(result.result())

In the code snippet above, a list of test scripts is defined, and the concurrent.futures.ThreadPoolExecutor() class is used to create a thread pool that runs the test scripts in parallel using the executor.submit() method. The run_test_script() function is then called for each test script, and the results of the test scripts are printed using the result.result() method.

10. Use Continuous Integration/Continuous Delivery (CI/CD)

Continuous Integration/Continuous Delivery (CI/CD) is a software development approach that emphasizes automating the build, testing, and deployment processes. Using CI/CD can help ensure that the web pages meet the desired quality standards and can help reduce the time required to release new features or updates.

Selenium with Python provides support for CI/CD through various tools and platforms, such as Jenkins, Travis CI, and CircleCI. CI/CD can be used to automate the entire testing process, including running the tests, generating reports, and deploying the web pages.

Here is an example of using CI/CD in Selenium with Python:

# Define a Jenkins pipeline that runs the Selenium tests
pipeline {
    agent any

    stages {
        stage('Build') {
            steps {
                sh 'pip install -r requirements.txt'
            }
        }

        stage('Test') {
            steps {
                sh 'python -m unittest discover -s tests -p "*_test.py"'
            }

            post {
                always {
                    junit 'reports/*.xml'
                }
            }
        }

        stage('Deploy') {
            steps {
                sh 'rsync -r --delete dist/ user@server:/var/www/html'
            }
        }
    }
}

In the code snippet above, a Jenkins pipeline is defined that runs the Selenium tests. The pipeline includes three stages: Build, Test, and Deploy. In the Test stage, the python -m unittest discover command is used to run the test scripts, and the junit command is used to generate a JUnit test report.

In the Deploy stage, the rsync command is used to deploy the web pages to a remote server. This entire process can be automated and integrated into the software development workflow to ensure that the web pages meet the desired quality standards and are deployed efficiently and reliably.

Platforms such as LambdaTest allow testers to run Selenium Python tests by reducing the need for maintenance and configuring local infrastructure. LambdaTest is a cloud-based automation testing platform for evaluating cross-browser compatibility. This platform allows testers to test a range of applications in the cloud, thus finding potential bugs or flaws early in development that would otherwise be impossible to find. Its infrastructure scaling issues are never a concern, and testers will be able to scale up or down the infrastructure they need as necessary.

LambdaTest provides various testing tools and capabilities, including live browser testing and parallel testing. It can also run automated Selenium scripts on a scalable cloud grid to save time and money, as well as screenshot testing and geo-location testing across many regions.

In conclusion, best practices must be followed to fully utilise Selenium with Python for web testing fully. You may increase the precision, dependability, and maintainability of your web testing scripts by utilising strategies like explicit waits, the Page Object Model, effective element locators, and test data management.

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The time and resources needed for web testing can be decreased by automating and streamlining the testing process by introducing tools to assist with test reporting, exception handling, parallel testing, and Continuous Integration/Continuous Delivery (CI/CD). You can make sure that your web testing activities are productive, efficient, and produce high-quality findings by implementing these best practices.

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